MILITARY RECORDED DEATHS:
The following chart shows losses of Confederate Armies by their respective State. The Military populations include those residents between the ages of 18 and 45 who were required to serve in the military and those that volunteered between the ages of as young as 12 and 55. The losses include combat deaths, wounded who later died and losses to disease. It does not include those that were wounded and disabled for most of their lives. The percent of losses for Confederates was about 10.25%, for the Union 5%. These heroic soldiers are the reason that monuments were built years later to honor their sacrifices. As the author points out the Confederate forces were almost constantly engaged. Not so with the much larger Union forces.
MILITARY POPULATION, 1861:
The "real cause" of the War Between the States is still a very hot topic of debate between academics, politicians, and everyday citizens - even to this very day! The common tactic of the modern 21st-century individual is to pick and choose their own "pints of facts" from only one or multiple sources and manipulate them to fit their narrative. This same tactic was utilized by politicians of the mid to late 19th-century politicians and writers of the propaganda of the Union. What makes this tactic more damaging is the use of it on social media platforms, where a single post containing off-facts, misleading information, or even a complete fabrication can be shared by thousands of other users in a matter of seconds.
Pressing Issues That Led to the Civil War
The Civil War erupted from a variety of longstanding tensions and disagreements about American life and politics. For nearly a century, the people and politicians of the Northern and Southern states had been clashing over the issues that finally led to war: economic interests, cultural values, and, most importantly the power of the federal government to control the states. While some of these differences might have been resolved peacefully through diplomacy, the institution of slavery was not among them.
States Sovereign Rights V. Overinflated Federal Government
Since the time of the American Revolution, two camps emerged when it came to the role of government. Some people argued for greater rights for the states and others argued that the federal government needed to have more control. The first organized government in the U.S. after the Revolution was under the Articles of Confederation. The 13 states formed a loose Confederation with a very weak federal government. However, when problems arose, the weaknesses of the Articles caused the leaders of the time to come together at the Constitutional Convention and create, in secret, the U.S. Constitution.
Strong proponents of states' rights like Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry were not present at this meeting. Many felt that the new Constitution ignored the rights of states to continue to act independently. They felt that the states should still have the right to decide if they were willing to accept certain federal acts. This resulted in the idea of nullification, whereby the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional. The federal government denied states this right. However, proponents such as John C. Calhoun—who resigned as vice president to represent South Carolina in the Senate—fought vehemently for nullification. When nullification would not work and many of the Southern states felt that they were no longer respected, they moved toward thoughts of secession.
The Election of Abraham Lincoln
The Democratic party was divided between factions in the North and South. At the same time, the conflicts surrounding Kansas and the Compromise of 1850 transformed the Whig party into the Republican party (established in 1854). In the North, this new party was seen for the advancement of the American economy. This included the support of industry and encouraging homesteading while advancing educational opportunities. In the South, Republicans were seen as little more than divisive. The presidential election of 1860 would be the deciding point for the Union. Abraham Lincoln represented the new Republican Party and Stephen Douglas, the Northern Democrat, was seen as his biggest rival. The Southern Democrats put John C. Breckenridge on the ballot. John C. Bell represented the Constitutional Union Party, a group of conservative Whigs hoping to avoid secession.
The country's divisions were clear on Election Day. Lincoln won the North, Breckenridge the South, and Bell the border states. Douglas won only Missouri and a portion of New Jersey. It was enough for Lincoln to win the popular vote, as well as 180 electoral votes. Even though things were already near a boiling point after Lincoln was elected, South Carolina issued its "Declaration of the Causes of Secession" on December 24, 1860. They believed that Lincoln was in favor of Northern interests.
President James Buchanan's administration did little to quell the tension or stop what would become known as "Secession Winter." Between Election Day and Lincoln's inauguration in March, seven states seceded from the Union: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. In the process, the South took control of federal installations, including forts in the region, which would give them a foundation for war. One of the most shocking events occurred when one-quarter of the nation's army surrendered in Texas under the command of General David E. Twigg. Not a single shot was fired in that exchange, but the stage was set for the bloodiest war in American history
Economic Envoy from the North
In the Southern states, longer growing seasons and fertile soils had established an economy based on agriculture fueled by sprawling plantations. When Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from cotton. At the same time, the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton created an even greater need for farm labor. The Southern economy became a one-crop economy, depending on cotton. In contrast, industry ruled the economy of the North and less emphasis was on agriculture, though even that was more diverse. Many Northern industries were purchasing the South's raw cotton and turning it into finished goods. This economic disparity also led to irreconcilable differences in societal and political views. In both the North and South, these differences influenced views on the powers of the federal government to control the economies and cultures of the states.
DEATHS IN THE CONFEDERATE ARMIES, BY STATES REGIMENTAL LOSSES - 1889
SOURCE: Regimental Losses by Lt Col William Fox, 1889, p 554.
"Do not trust too much; for falsehood will travel over the country, while the truth is pulling on its boots."
- President Thomas Jefferson, Auther of the Declaration of Independence - 1776
THE REAL CAUSE OF THE CIVIL WAR